Waste Management

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) has become a challenge for Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) throughout the world. Depending upon the country spending capacity; every nation generates a different quantity per capita of MSW. Third world countries generate 250 grams per capita per day, whereas developed nations generate up to 2000 grams per capita per day. MSW composition is variable, with moisture as the most challenging aspect when it comes to the development of a business model for sustainable practices, so there is an urgent need to develop sustainable alternatives for MSW from outdated landfills and even sanitary dump sites.

Generally, MSW projects are subsidized or publically funded. The cost to local governments / municipalities continues to rise with little or no hope for cost recovery. However, waste can be a valuable resource. This is already demonstrated in certain countries.

UNEP states that worldwide, there is a growing need for sustainable and coherent solutions to solid waste management problems. MSW seems to be more complex in developing and transitional countries, where the increase volume and type of wastes, as a result of economic growth, urbanization and industrialization, is becoming a burgeoning problem for national and local governments, making tougher to ensure an effective and sustainable management of waste ‘( WTE /Inter-American Development Bank handbook )

Problem Related to MSW Management

Major problems related to MSW Management are:

  • Composition of MSW varies with pocket to pocket
  • Segregation-At-Source has not become a reality and is adding cost to operations
  • MSW sites have foul odors & cause health risk to site workers & surrounding localities
  • Leachate or run-off from MSW is a major threat to ground water quality and in addition contribute to the production of a “biogas” that is 55% Methane ( CH4) and adds approximately 3% of the GHG that is contraindicated in climate changes.
  • Collection of leachate & its treatment prior to release requires is an unproven science.
  • Available Treatment technologies are quite capital & energy intensive.

NPB Technology For Municipal Solid Waste Management – An approach to Zero Landfill with sustainable solution.

Controlled decomposition of MSW leads to resource recovery for sustainable waste management. INNOVATIVE ECO-CARE (IEC) has proprietary inoculum from GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe by WHO) microbe for ‘Controlled Decomposition’ for efficient resource recovery. Our inoculum is known as RENERZYME a.k.a Re-Energy Enzyme.

Being a Mixed Microbial Culture, RENERZYME has an edge over other cultures or enzymes.

Salient & distinct features of RENERZYME application for MSW are :

  • No need of Segregation-at-source OR prior to Treatment
  • It can handle input moisture contents from 30-70%
  • It controls foul odour & fly within few hours of applications
  • Maintains acidic pH within 24 hours of application to thwart generation of ammonia
  • Rapid biological action increases mass temperature over 70 degree centigrade within 4-6 days
  • Mass temperature remains over 65 degree centigrade for 4-6 days to kill weed seed in compost, removes moisture and does not allow leachate generation
  • Rapid Biological action consumes food waste & water to make it free-flow
  • Free-flow mass requires less energy for sorting & processing
  • Post-RENERZYME treatment, mass is fed to sorting line to recover the resources like a) Compost, b) RDF, c) Recyclables (Plastics, Paper, Metal etc) and d) Inert (stone, dirt) etc.
  • Yields could be as high as 50% from wet MSW.
  • Recovered RDF is further utilized in producing ENERGY by means of Gasifier, Boilers, Heating equipments to Power.
  • Compost produced carry specification near to FCO standards
  • Recyclables are very clean & can be easily sold to its vendors
  • Stone can be further crushed & utilized to form concrete blocks – A need of construction industry in urban world.

Municipal Solid Waste’s (MSW) :

EFFECTIVE, EFFICIENT & ECONOMIC (EEE) Management is the critical issue in all country across world

There are different types of mechanical Drying technology available, but all are highly advanced & requires high capital cost. Majority of Mechanical drying technology requires excessive external energy, huge space, pollution control equipments, water treatment facility - for drying of MSW. All this equipment adds an additional process, that has got its own problems & limitations, which makes the drying of MSW as major obstacle in further application & processing integration.

IEC has came up with its unique technology of BIOdrying for EEE management of MSW.

Renerzyme :

Microbial Cultures of GRAS microbe contains organic acids, metabolites, organic salts etc. It can dominate local micro flora & fauna in no time. At the same time, it works to activate local dormant beneficial microbial species in the eco-system. NPB GRAS microbe & local beneficial microbe work in tandem to create synergies to take charge of the eco-system & generate temperature as high as 80° cent. This unique action is known as ‘Bio-Drying’.

During multiple cycles of biodegradation, a widely diverse population of micro organisms catabolises substrates through complex biochemical reactions to satisfy metabolic and growth needs, gradually leading to mineralisation of organic substances.

In case of MSW management, BIOdrying technology can bring in following changes in eco-friendly manner :

  • Odour control in few hours from applicationc
  • No segregation of Non-biodegradable (Plastics, Metal, Glass, Clothes, Leather etc). Non-biodegradables are removed during sieving operation, when its hygienic
  • pH of mass comes down from 8.0-9.0 to 5.5-6.0 in 24 hours time, which kills harmful microbe & prevents loss of Nitrogen in the form of ammonia
  • Composting time is less than 4 weeks, hence, no loss of carbon in the form of CO, CO2 or CH4
  • As the temperature goes more than 80° C, No leachate generation, hence no additional cost for leachate management & treatment.
  • Our process can efficiently produce Refused Derived Fuel (RDF) in form of Briquettes / Pellets, which is further used for steam & power generation. RDF has calorific value of 2500-3300 kcal/kg, so, IEC RDF is an economically viable solid fuel.
  • Sale of RDF on regular basis will generate cash flow for the project & at the same time will reduce the requirement of working capital. RDF can be used in gasifiers or steam boilers to generate POWER making complete project more economically viable.

IEC (INNOVATIVE ECO-CARE PVT LTD) has a proprietary formulated product-line. Every product has been designed for specific field applications. As these products affect the local ecology, we took great care in designing, formulating and calculating the minimum quantity for the application.

Following are the details of the IEC Product Line and its ideology.

RENERZYME

RENERZYME is an inoculum of beneficial microbes along with precursors.

CONTENTS: Lacto bacillus sporogenes, Saccharomyces Cerevicae, carbohydrates, minerals, water.

BENEFITS

  • Provides precursors that reactivate beneficial microbes in the local ecology
  • Facilitates rapid breakdown and stability of organic matter (2 – 3 weeks)
  • Balances Microbial profiling for the control of viral out break
  • Balances Microbial profiling for the control of viral out break
  • Reduces GHGs (Green House Gases)

ACTIVATOR

FOR BALANCING OF SOIL PH and BETTER PLANT NUTRITION ACTIVATOR is a special blend of organic acids. It facilitates culturing of Inno-Care by “activating” the beneficial GRAS microbes and deterring gram negative microbes during the fermentation process, etc.

INNO-GROW+

Product Detils

  • Works as precursor for metabolic processes & improves absorption of nutrients & micro nutrients
  • Provides Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Zinc & Iron in organic chelated forms
  • 16 amino acids for improved protein synthesis
  • Re-Activates Microbial colonies for balanced Microbial Profiling & Microbial Population
  • Improves DO (Dissolved Oxygen) level, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand)

IEC has developed a complete integrated package of complete MSW handling in EEE mode. The basket of technologies applied in MSW & delivered by IEC with single point responsibility are :

Design, Engineering, Supply, Erection & Commissioning of :

  • BIO drying Technology with supply of RENERZYME
  • Treatment Machineries for effective treatment of MSW.
  • Processing Machineries for efficient sorting & segregating of all useful produces like : RDF, Compost, Inert, Non-Recyclables, etc. in CLEAN form
  • Supply of Unique designed Shredders for shredding RDF to required size as per downstream technology usage.
  • RDF to Energy (POWER) Technology by using Gasifier to Power, Steam to Power, Co-Gen Power, Briquette to Heating systems, etc.
  • Complete Control system for flawless operation of entire plant with SCADA system.

Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for compete resource recovery :

Revenue Models

If we consider MSW as a resource, we should adopt a ‘0% Landfill Approach’, i.e. we should have ways & means to convert all the components of MSW into saleable products, in an eco-friendly manner. The following are the revenue models from our treatment & processing technology. All the revenue models may not be feasible at all the locations.

  • Compost: 5-10% of the input
  • RDF (Refuse Derived Fuel): 20-40% of the input
  • Metals: 0.5-2.0% of the input
  • Mixed Plastics: 5.0-15.0% of the input
  • Inert: 5.0-15.0% of the input

Waste-to-Energy:

From recovered resource, RDF and Mixed Plastics would be useful to produce power. The following routes can be adopted for power generation.

  • Steam Route (40 kgs pressure): Needs 80-120 MT of MSW for 1 MW
  • Gasification route (3 MW X ___): Needs 50-55 MT of MSW for 1 MW
  • Combination of Steam & Gasification : Needs 50-55 MT of MSW for 1 MW

Option no.3 is recommended for large capacities beyond 20 MW & upwards. It will reduce the multiple units and provide technological flexibilities, too.

Infrastructure:

  • Requirement of land for MSW project would be 1.2-1.5 acre / 100 TPD projects.
  • Approximately 10 KL water will be required for 1 MW of power generation through Steam Route & MSW treatment.
  • As a thumb rule, 90 HP of electrical power for MSW treatment, 180 HP for briquette production & 360 KW for power generation will be required per 300 TPD project.

Our focus at IEC Technologies is the generation of “smart” energy from MSW resources, which has all been made possible by the meticulous R&D behind our organic bio-drying agent and combined, with our 40 years of energy producing systems. We do not claim to have all the answers rather we hope that we can help to contribute and make this nuisance to ULB be a thing of the past

  1. Dump sites worldwide are notorious for the offending stench released and as such, a measurable turn off from commercial and residential developments. With IEC technology, the stench is not only eliminated but the potential public health damages from leachate are also avoided. There are many cases where leachate have been implicated in groundwater contamination, thus serious public health risks can be avoided which would otherwise be burdensome for any government.
  2. IEC technology provides a basis for increased Renewable Energy conversion. Normally, some 100 -150 TPD is required for each MW of recovered renewable energy derived from municipal waste. But with the advent of the “Bio Drying” associated with our technology, only 50-55 TPD of municipal waste is required to generate 1 MW of renewable energy. Thus a city with a 2000 TPD municipal waste quota can technically generate about 40 MW of renewable energy compared to 15-20 MW or less from conventional systems.
  3. The plant will require skilled, semi skilled and unskilled personnel, about 150 staff for each 12 MW of energy generation. Thus the local economy will enjoy sustainable economic growth.
  4. Cost of IEC renewable energy technology will be significantly less than energy derived from fossil fuels.
  5. Zero landfill goal is achievable with IEC Technology since the by-products (inert & ash from the energy generation units) can be converted into construction blocks.
  6. Over a period of time, most of the land associated with the existing landfill can be recovered. In some cases, these are valuable locations which can be developed thus boosting the local economy.
  7. “Renewable energy from waste” can be extended into agricultural waste since many countries under utilize the agricultural waste from say sugarcane (bagasse) which is simply incinerated. IEC management has solution for the same & would be pleased to discuss our proposal as and when the time is appropriate.
  8. Emissions from IEC technology meet and exceed the recommendation from European Standards.
  9. Generation of considerable civil engineering works which would further benefit the local economy.
  10. Reduction of Green House Gases (GHG) and Carbon emissions.
  11. Existing dumps must address leachate contamination, which is destroying the surrounding lands. The cost to treat leachate is significant. With IEC, leachate is safely and effectively eliminated.
  12. Energy generation is Safe, Cost Effective and Renewable. Fossil fuels have already hit “peak flow” thus the future supplies are in decline. Other sources of renewable energy (wind and solar) are intermittent.

MSW Waste Management Dump sites are lately stacked up, tens of feet in the air with potentially high amounts of carbon rich biomasses. These soaring heaps of waste encourages anaerobic conditions for microorganisms, which along with nutrient availability from organic biomasses conceivably serves as quite favourable for Methanogens (Methane Producing Microorganisms) to thrive and produce high concentrations of methane.

Methane is highly flammable and can be flared up at ambient temperatures. Due to this, methane catches fire and eventually enflames the surrounding waste, which is potentially flammable matter. This leads to Fire and Smoke Hazards, inciting Public Health and Safety Concerns.

Along with the fire related hazards due to Methanogens some Malodorous compounds are also generated due to chemical reactions and other microbial activity, which is again a reason for public uproar due to the extremely antagonising stench.

Problem at the Core:

Methanogens are anaerobic microorganisms which utilize sulphur as the final electron donor in the ETC (Electron Transport Chain). Methanogen activity is at its peak under absolutely anaerobic conditions. Methanogens has high activity at a neutral pH. Along with this, Ammonia and H2S are released at the same pH only. Methanogen activity is also dependant on the utilization of specific substrates for energy.

How Renerzyme can be an effective means to an end of MSW Dump Fire and Odour Management concerns?

Renerzyme is effective in repression of methanation and the resulting fires and smoke on dump sites. Renerzyme has also been recorded effective in waste decomposition and odour control on waste management sites and dump sites. These microbes will assist in supplementing a biochemical pool of beneficial metabolites, offer a newer microflora and newer gas exchange kinetics.

Features of RENERZYME application for MSW:

  • It controls foul odour & fly within few hours of applications
  • Maintains acidic pH within 24 hours of application to thwart generation of Methane, ammonia, Hydrogen Sulphide

Means of Application of Renerzyme:

1 – 2 % solution of RENERZYME is prepared in water. For this purpose, treated sewage water / seawater also can be used.

This above stated activity of Renerzyme and its mode of action was studied at Institute of Chemical Technology (Previously UDCT), Mumbai.